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NFPA, Fire Analysis and Research Division, Quincy, MA

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-operated devices that deliver nicotine in a vapor form by heating a solution commonly comprised of propylene glycol, nicotine, and flavoring ingredients. Since entering the U.S. market in 2007, e-cigarettes have attracted a growing supply of consumers, with sales increasing from $20 million in 2008 to approximately $1.5 billion in 2014. 1 The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 12.6 percent of U.S. adults reported ever trying an e-cigarette in 2014. 2 Ecigarette sales are projected to further increase in the years ahead.

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Related article - The regulatory crack has closed:  FDA is now regulating E-cigarettes

From Out of the Abyss...

This week’s article from the past is titled Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted and was written by Benjamin Horton, CPCU, who was President of the National Adjuster Traing School in Louisville, Kentucky..  It is taken from the Decembe 1968 Vol. XVI No.5 issue.

Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted 

In the new issue of NFPA Journal®, President Jim Shannon said the Association will focus on the leading causes of home fires, including cooking. "We also need to continue to push hard for home fire sprinklers. That's still a large priority for NFPA, and we plan to work very aggressively in 2014 on our residential sprinkler initiative," he said.

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NFPA 921, Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigations plays a fundamental role in fire and explosion investigations. A new edition of NFPA 921 is scheduled to be published in 2014. For years, this document has played a critical role in the training, education and job performance of fire and explosion investigators. It also serves as one of the primary references used by the National Fire Academy to support its fire/arson-related training and education programs. It is imperative that investigators understand the scope, purpose and application of this document, especially since it will be used to judge the quality and thoroughness of their investigations.

NFPA 921, Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigations plays a fundamental role in fire and explosion investigations. A new edition of NFPA 921 is scheduled to be published in 2014. For years, this document has played a critical role in the training, education and job performance of fire and explosion investigators. It also serves as one of the primary references used by the National Fire Academy to support its fire/arson-related training and education programs. It is imperative that investigators understand the scope, purpose and application of this document, especially since it will be used to judge the quality and thoroughness of their investigations.

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Troy Morrison and E.R. "Scotty" Baker 

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Russ Bohse, Tom DerbyJohn Kitchens

Electronic Cigarette Explosions and Fires: The 2015 Experience

NFPA, Fire Analysis and Research Division, Quincy, MA

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-operated devices that deliver nicotine in a vapor form by heating a solution commonly comprised of propylene glycol, nicotine, and flavoring ingredients. Since entering the U.S. market in 2007, e-cigarettes have attracted a growing supply of consumers, with sales increasing from $20 million in 2008 to approximately $1.5 billion in 2014. 1 The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 12.6 percent of U.S. adults reported ever trying an e-cigarette in 2014. 2 Ecigarette sales are projected to further increase in the years ahead.

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Related article - The regulatory crack has closed:  FDA is now regulating E-cigarettes

March 6-8, 2017 Training Seminar

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Experimental Study of the Effects of Fuel Type, Fuel Distribution, and Vent Size on Full-Scale Underventilated Compartment Fires in an ISO 9705 Room

INTRODUCTION
This report describes new full-scale compartment fire experiments, which include local
measurements of temperature, heat flux and species composition, and global measurements of
heat release rate and mass burning rate. The measurements are unique to the compartment fire
literature. By design, the experiments provided a comprehensive and quantitative assessment of
major and minor carbonaceous gaseous species and soot at two locations in the upper layer of
fire in a full scale ISO 9705 room [1].
Fire protection engineers, fire researchers, regulatory authorities, fire service and law
enforcement personnel use fire models (such as the NIST Fire Dynamics Simulator, FDS[2]) for
design and analysis of fire safety features in buildings and for post-fire reconstruction and
forensic applications. Fire field models have historically showed limited ability to accurately
and reliably predict the thermal conditions and chemical species in underventilated compartment
fires. Formal validation efforts have shown that for well ventilated compartment fires, with the
exception perhaps of soot, field models do quite well in predicting temperature and species when
experimental uncertainty is accounted for. Inaccurate predictions of incomplete burning and soot
levels impact calculations of radiative heat transfer, burning rates, and estimates of human
tenability. High-quality (relatively low, quantified uncertainty) measurements of fire gas
species, temperature, and soot from the interior of underventilated compartment fires are needed
to guide the development and validation of improved fire field models.

Introduction

This report describes new full-scale compartment fire experiments, which include localmeasurements of temperature, heat flux and species composition, and global measurements ofheat release rate and mass burning rate. The measurements are unique to the compartment fireliterature. By design, the experiments provided a comprehensive and quantitative assessment ofmajor and minor carbonaceous gaseous species and soot at two locations in the upper layer offire in a full scale ISO 9705 room [1].

Fire protection engineers, fire researchers, regulatory authorities, fire service and lawenforcement personnel use fire models (such as the NIST Fire Dynamics Simulator, FDS[2]) fordesign and analysis of fire safety features in buildings and for post-fire reconstruction andforensic applications. Fire field models have historically showed limited ability to accuratelyand reliably predict the thermal conditions and chemical species in underventilated compartmentfires. Formal validation efforts have shown that for well ventilated compartment fires, with theexception perhaps of soot, field models do quite well in predicting temperature and species whenexperimental uncertainty is accounted for. Inaccurate predictions of incomplete burning and sootlevels impact calculations of radiative heat transfer, burning rates, and estimates of humantenability. High-quality (relatively low, quantified uncertainty) measurements of fire gasspecies, temperature, and soot from the interior of underventilated compartment fires are neededto guide the development and validation of improved fire field models.

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Flashover Fires in Small Residential Units with an Open Kitchen

ABSTRACT
The open kitchen design in small residential units where fire load density and occupant
load are very high introduces additional fire risk. One big concern is that whether
flash-over can occur which may trigger a big post flashover fire, resulting in severe
casualties and big property damage. It is important to understand and predict the
critical conditions for flashover in this kind of units. Based on a two-layer zone model,
the probability of flashover is investigated by a nonlinear dynamical model. The
temperature of the smoke layer is taken as the only state variable and the evolution
equation is developed in the form of a simplified energy balance equation for the hot
smoke layer. Flashover is considered to occur at bifurcation points. Then the influence
of the floor dimensions and the radiation feedback coefficient on flashover conditions
is examined. When the dimensions of the floor vary, the resulting changes in internal
surface area or size of floor area both have effect on the flashover conditions. When the
radiation feedback coefficient is of small value, there is no possibility of flashover.
With the increase of the radiation feedback coefficient, at first it significantly affects
the conditions for flashover and then moderately when it reaches a larger value. It is
proved that the flashover phenomenon can be demonstrated well by nonlinear
dynamical system and it helps to understand the effect of various control parameters.

Abstract

The open kitchen design in small residential units where fire load density and occupant load are very high introduces additional fire risk. One big concern is that whether flash-over can occur which may trigger a big post flashover fire, resulting in severe casualties and big property damage. It is important to understand and predict the critical conditions for flashover in this kind of units. Based on a two-layer zone model, the probability of flashover is investigated by a nonlinear dynamical model. The temperature of the smoke layer is taken as the only state variable and the evolution equation is developed in the form of a simplified energy balance equation for the hot smoke layer. Flashover is considered to occur at bifurcation points. Then the influence of the floor dimensions and the radiation feedback coefficient on flashover conditions is examined. When the dimensions of the floor vary, the resulting changes in internal surface area or size of floor area both have effect on the flashover conditions. When the radiation feedback coefficient is of small value, there is no possibility of flashover.  With the increase of the radiation feedback coefficient, at first it significantly affects the conditions for flashover and then moderately when it reaches a larger value. It is proved that the flashover phenomenon can be demonstrated well by nonlinear dynamical system and it helps to understand the effect of various control parameters.

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