Vytenis Babrauskas, Ph.D
Arc mapping was first introduced in the 2001 edition of NFPA 921 and was subsequently expanded so that in the recent editions it constitutes one of the four main methods for determining the origin of a fire. Careful consideration of engineering principles and large-scale experimental studies on the subject indicates that the relevance and prominence of arc mapping as a leading indicator of fire origin is greatly overstated. The technique is valid and applicable only in some very limited scenarios. Yet it has seen very extensive use in recent years by investigators preparing fire reports. In many cases, such attempted use of arc mapping is based on incorrect and invalid hypotheses, which are often implicitly assumed to be true instead of being explicitly stated. The following are myths: (i) An abundance of arc beads at a given locale means that fire originated in that area, while a paucity of arc beads indicates that it did not. (ii) When multiple arcs are present on a circuit, the direction of arcing will necessarily proceed upstream towards the power source. (iii) If an appliance is the victim of a fire, internal arcing will be primarily near the exterior of the unit, while arcing deep inside indicates a fire origin at that place. NFPA is urged to revise NFPA 921 to eliminate arc mapping as one of the four main methods for establishing fire origin, and to subsume it under the more general category of “fire patterns.” In addition, it is important that NFPA 921 reduce the implied general utility of the method and provide more explicit information on its interpretation and its limitations and on the circumstances under which it may be a valid method for assisting in the determination of the fire origin.
Vytenis Babrauskas, Ph.D.
Short circuits to building wiring can happen due to electrical mishaps, or as a result of fire impinging on the wiring. In either case, this may cause arcing. It is sometimes erroneously assumed that this must produce signs of ‘electrical activity,’ which is a term often used by fire investigators to mean discernable arc marks or arc beads. While such artifacts may indeed be produced, it is shown that it does not necessarily happen in every case. Shorting and arcing (whether due to fire or due to an accident) may occur without leaving physical evidence that is discernable as an arc bead. Ejecta also may, but do not have to be produced. Some variables have been identified which can influence the size of arc beads, when arc beads are produced. But stochastic aspects dominate, and no predictive correlations can be expected. It is also shown that there are no prediction methods available to establish if an arc locale will result in severing or welding together of conductors.
From Out of the Abyss...
This week’s article from the past is titled Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted and was written by Benjamin Horton, CPCU, who was President of the National Adjuster Traing School in Louisville, Kentucky.. It is taken from the Decembe 1968 Vol. XVI No.5 issue.
Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted
In the new issue of NFPA Journal®, President Jim Shannon said the Association will focus on the leading causes of home fires, including cooking. "We also need to continue to push hard for home fire sprinklers. That's still a large priority for NFPA, and we plan to work very aggressively in 2014 on our residential sprinkler initiative," he said.
From: The Desk of Scotty Baker
To: The CCAI Training Committee
Over the last several training seminars, even as an old hand, I have learned new information concerning fires and how they do what they do.
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The California Conference of Arson Investigators is the oldest and the most active fire and arson investigator's association in the country, with over 1,100 members. CCAI is the only organization that transcends the gap between the public (fire service, law enforcement) and private (i.e. insurance adjusters, private investigators, etc.) sectors. Created in 1954, and incorporated under the laws of the State of California in 1960 as a non-profit corporation, it serves the professional needs of men and women engaged in all aspects of fire and arson investigation. CCAI is Chapter #22 of the International Association of Arson Investigators.
CCAI conducts semi-annual training seminars, using the finest instructors from across the country. The most up to date technical information on fire, fraud, and arson investigation is provided to hundreds of participants. All aspects of fire/arson investigation are covered in training provided to public and private sectors.
CCAI provides regional Roundtable meetings at locations throughout the State of California. The Round Table meetings are the backbone of the organization. Attendees are presented with programs of special interest at these meetings. One of the many benefits of of attending these meetings is the ability to network with local public and private fire investigators to discuss recent fire trends and individual fire cases.
CCAI is proud to be involved in the advancement of fire and arson investigation. Through education and training, CCAI has proven the true value of a professional organization. Through an extremely active membership, this non profit organization has brought together various divergent segments of a diversified profession, and helped to make fire and arson training in California the best and most coordinated, professional training in the nation.
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