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Vytenis Babrauskas, Ph.D

Abstract

Arc mapping was first introduced in the 2001 edition of NFPA 921 and was subsequently expanded so that in the recent editions it constitutes one of the four main methods for determining the origin of a fire. Careful consideration of engineering principles and large-scale experimental studies on the subject indicates that the relevance and prominence of arc mapping as a leading indicator of fire origin is greatly overstated. The technique is valid and applicable only in some very limited scenarios. Yet it has seen very extensive use in recent years by investigators preparing fire reports. In many cases, such attempted use of arc mapping is based on incorrect and invalid hypotheses, which are often implicitly assumed to be true instead of being explicitly stated. The following are myths: (i) An abundance of arc beads at a given locale means that fire originated in that area, while a paucity of arc beads indicates that it did not. (ii) When multiple arcs are present on a circuit, the direction of arcing will necessarily proceed upstream towards the power source. (iii) If an appliance is the victim of a fire, internal arcing will be primarily near the exterior of the unit, while arcing deep inside indicates a fire origin at that place. NFPA is urged to revise NFPA 921 to eliminate arc mapping as one of the four main methods for establishing fire origin, and to subsume it under the more general category of “fire patterns.” In addition, it is important that NFPA 921 reduce the implied general utility of the method and provide more explicit information on its interpretation and its limitations and on the circumstances under which it may be a valid method for assisting in the determination of the fire origin.

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Vytenis Babrauskas, Ph.D.

Abstract

Short circuits to building wiring can happen due to electrical mishaps, or as a result of fire impinging on the wiring. In either case, this may cause arcing.  It is sometimes erroneously assumed that this must produce signs of ‘electrical activity,’ which is a term often used by fire investigators to mean discernable arc marks or arc beads.  While such artifacts may indeed be produced, it is shown that it does not necessarily happen in every case.  Shorting and arcing (whether due to fire or due to an accident) may occur without leaving physical evidence that is discernable as an arc bead.  Ejecta also may, but do not have to be produced.  Some variables have been identified which can influence the size of arc beads, when arc beads are produced.  But stochastic aspects dominate, and no predictive correlations can be expected.  It is also shown that there are no prediction methods available to establish if an arc locale will result in severing or welding together of conductors.

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From Out of the Abyss...

This week’s article from the past is titled Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted and was written by Benjamin Horton, CPCU, who was President of the National Adjuster Traing School in Louisville, Kentucky..  It is taken from the Decembe 1968 Vol. XVI No.5 issue.

Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted 

In the new issue of NFPA Journal®, President Jim Shannon said the Association will focus on the leading causes of home fires, including cooking. "We also need to continue to push hard for home fire sprinklers. That's still a large priority for NFPA, and we plan to work very aggressively in 2014 on our residential sprinkler initiative," he said.

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From: The Desk of Scotty Baker

To: The CCAI Training Committee

Thank You

Over the last several training seminars, even as an old hand, I have learned new information concerning fires and how they do what they do.

 

Get started today

Attention - CCAI's next training seminar is scheduled for March 6-8, 2017 - Attention

The focus will be on Interviewing, Report Writing and Fundamentals

Register now online or Fill out the registration form and email, mail or fax it

             Group-photo-web_10-2016

 

Flashover Fires in Small Residential Units with an Open Kitchen

ABSTRACT
The open kitchen design in small residential units where fire load density and occupant
load are very high introduces additional fire risk. One big concern is that whether
flash-over can occur which may trigger a big post flashover fire, resulting in severe
casualties and big property damage. It is important to understand and predict the
critical conditions for flashover in this kind of units. Based on a two-layer zone model,
the probability of flashover is investigated by a nonlinear dynamical model. The
temperature of the smoke layer is taken as the only state variable and the evolution
equation is developed in the form of a simplified energy balance equation for the hot
smoke layer. Flashover is considered to occur at bifurcation points. Then the influence
of the floor dimensions and the radiation feedback coefficient on flashover conditions
is examined. When the dimensions of the floor vary, the resulting changes in internal
surface area or size of floor area both have effect on the flashover conditions. When the
radiation feedback coefficient is of small value, there is no possibility of flashover.
With the increase of the radiation feedback coefficient, at first it significantly affects
the conditions for flashover and then moderately when it reaches a larger value. It is
proved that the flashover phenomenon can be demonstrated well by nonlinear
dynamical system and it helps to understand the effect of various control parameters.

Abstract

The open kitchen design in small residential units where fire load density and occupant load are very high introduces additional fire risk. One big concern is that whether flash-over can occur which may trigger a big post flashover fire, resulting in severe casualties and big property damage. It is important to understand and predict the critical conditions for flashover in this kind of units. Based on a two-layer zone model, the probability of flashover is investigated by a nonlinear dynamical model. The temperature of the smoke layer is taken as the only state variable and the evolution equation is developed in the form of a simplified energy balance equation for the hot smoke layer. Flashover is considered to occur at bifurcation points. Then the influence of the floor dimensions and the radiation feedback coefficient on flashover conditions is examined. When the dimensions of the floor vary, the resulting changes in internal surface area or size of floor area both have effect on the flashover conditions. When the radiation feedback coefficient is of small value, there is no possibility of flashover.  With the increase of the radiation feedback coefficient, at first it significantly affects the conditions for flashover and then moderately when it reaches a larger value. It is proved that the flashover phenomenon can be demonstrated well by nonlinear dynamical system and it helps to understand the effect of various control parameters.

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Measurements of Heat and Combustion Products in Reduced-Scale Ventilation-Limited Compartment Fires

1 Introduction
A series of new reduced-scale compartment fire experiments were conducted, which included
local measurements of temperature and species composition. The measurements are unique to
the compartment fire literature. By design, the experiments provided a comprehensive and
quantitative assessment of major and minor carbonaceous gaseous species and soot at two
locations in the upper layer of fire in a 2/5 scale International Organization for Standards (ISO)
9705 room. The enclosure defined in the international standard ISO 9705 “Full-scale room test
for surface products” [1] is an important structure in which to conduct fire research. Many
dozens of research projects and journal articles have focused on this enclosure and the standard
describing its use. It is a common reference point for studies of many fire-related phenomena as
well as fire modeling efforts.

Introduction

A series of new reduced-scale compartment fire experiments were conducted, which includedlocal measurements of temperature and species composition. The measurements are unique tothe compartment fire literature. By design, the experiments provided a comprehensive andquantitative assessment of major and minor carbonaceous gaseous species and soot at twolocations in the upper layer of fire in a 2/5 scale International Organization for Standards (ISO)9705 room. The enclosure defined in the international standard ISO 9705 “Full-scale room testfor surface products” [1] is an important structure in which to conduct fire research. Manydozens of research projects and journal articles have focused on this enclosure and the standarddescribing its use. It is a common reference point for studies of many fire-related phenomena aswell as fire modeling efforts.

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Fremont Insurance Company and Steve and Diane Foley v. Gro-Green Farms, Inc.

FREMONT INSURANCE COMPANY, Plaintiff-Appellant/Cross-Appellee, and
STEVE FOLEY and DIANE FOLEY, d/b/a RAINBOW CREEK FARMS, Appellants/Cross-Appellees,
v.
GRO-GREEN FARMS, INC., Defendant-Appellee/Cross-Appellant.
Court of Appeals of Michigan.
March 17, 2016

Before: K. F. KELLY, P.J., and FORT HOOD and BORRELLO, JJ.

UNPUBLISHED
PER CURIAM.

Plaintiffs appeal as of right from orders of the trial court granting defendant's motion for summary disposition and motion in limine. On appeal, plaintiffs argue that the trial court erred in granting defendant's summary disposition on plaintiffs' tort claims on the basis of the economic loss doctrine, erred in granting defendant's motion for summary disposition on the basis that plaintiffs failed to provide defendant with reasonable notice pursuant to MCL 440.2607(3)(a), and erred in granting defendant's motion in limine and prohibiting evidence relating to "clinkers." Defendant cross appeals as of right, asserting alternative grounds for affirmance of its motion for summary disposition and motion in limine, and disputing the trial court's denial of its motion to amend its witness list. We affirm in part, reverse in part, and remand for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.

 You can access the full article in the members only section


Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted

From Out of the Abyss...

This week’s article from the past is titled Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted and was written by Benjamin Horton, CPCU, who was President of the National Adjuster Traing School in Louisville, Kentucky..  It is taken from the Decembe 1968 Vol. XVI No.5 issue.

Incendiary Fires Can Be Spotted 

Protection Against Ignitions Arising Out of Static, Lightning and Stray Currents.

This week's "From Out of the Abyss" article was found in the March 1957, Vol. III-No.3, issue of the CCAI Newsletter.  It is 14 pages long and took up the majority of the newsletter.

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